EXAM 2 This exam has a total of 17 points. Each point corresponds to a numbered question. The numbered question is to be answered.

This exam has a total of 17 points. Each point corresponds to a numbered question. The numbered question is to be answered. The correct answer to a numbered question will give you one point. If the answer is partially correct, partial credit will be given as a decimal value. If the answer is incorrect, no credit will be given. If the question is unanswered, no credit will be given so it is better to guess than to leave a question blank. The number of points earned will be divided by the total number of points on the exam and multiplied by 100 to get your grade. Good luck!

  1. What is the mechanism of a ligand-gated ion channel? In other words, how does a ligand-gated ion channel work? (1 point)

  1. What does Fig. 1 say about PGE2 in your own words? (1 point)

  1. What does Fig. 1 say about the vehicle in your own words? (1 point)

  1. What kind of correlation is PGE2 in Fig. 1? Positive, negative, or no correlation? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 4 is correct? (1 point)

  1. What kind of correlation is the vehicle in Fig. 1? Positive, negative, or no correlation? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 6 is correct? (1 point)

  1. How does Fig. 2a and e show that the PGE2 intrathecal injection significantly decreased gephyrin and GlyRα3 protein expression in the L5 DH at 1 h and lasted to 5 h? (1 point)

  1. How does Fig. 2b and c show that the PGE2 intrathecal injection significantly decreased gephyrin expression? (1 point)

  1. In the paragraph before the discussion section the authors wrote “The PGE2 intrathecal injection model significantly decreased ephyrin, GlyRα1 and GlyRα3 protein expression in the L5 DRG at 5 h (Fig. 4; Additional file 4). These protein expressions did not significantly change in the L5 DRG at 1 h.” How does Fig. 4 show that the protein expressions did not significantly change in the L5 DRG at 1h? (1 point)

  1. In the Gephyrin, GlyRα1 and GlyRα3 expressions in the spinal cord section of the discussion section the authors wrote “Furthermore, the cell bodies and dendritic processes showed moderate to high levels of intense GlyRs puncta on their membranes of the dorsal horn superficial layer (laminia II-III) and ventral horn [13].” Was there moderate to high levels of intense GlyRs puncta in the butterfly of the spinal cord or around the butterfly of the spinal cord? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 11 is correct? (1 point)

  1. Quote something from the article as evidence that your answer to question 12 is correct. (1 point)

  1. In the section before the conclusions section the authors wrote “Thus, the authors suggest the possibility that glycine presynaptically regulates the activity of neurons involved in low-threshold mechanoreception at axoaxonic synapses in the spinal cord [16].” How can a neuron presynaptically regulate the activity of neuron? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 14 is correct? (1 point)

  1. Is your answer to question 15 true for gap junctions? Yes or no? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 16 is correct? (1 point)