Characteristics and Identification of Weapons of Mass Destruction Essay

Unit II Essay

In order to be knowledgeable about weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and to be able to rapidly recognize when one may have been employed, it is important to understand the various types of WMD, their characteristics, and how to identify and combat them.

All first responders, if not all Americans, understand that when they see white dust in an envelope anthrax may be present. However, many pathogens take weeks to show symptoms or, along with toxic chemicals, may be successfully employed using water systems or agriculture. However, certain pathogens and toxins can be ruled out simply because of the delivery method employed.

Likewise, there is a significant difference between a radiological dispersal device (RDD) and a nuclear weapon in the probability of use, the degree of lethality, radioactive material employed, delivery mechanisms, and in the ease of obtaining or manufacturing.

In an essay of at least two pages, compare WMD types, lethality, ease of obtaining, and probability of use by terrorists. Be sure to complete the tasks below in your essay.

Explain the types of chemical agents or biological agents that can be used in an attack.

Define the characteristics of nuclear terrorist weapons (the difference between an RDD and a nuclear weapon).

Summarize the impacts of a nuclear weapon in the community feeling its effects.

Your essay should be written in APA style. Your title and reference pages will not count toward the total page requirement of this assignment. You will need to include an introduction to your essay. You should utilize and list your textbook as a source, and any other scholarly sources should all be cited in APA format as well.

Unit III Journal

Based on your reading and personal experience, discuss the vulnerability of the nation’s agricultural system to a terrorist attack. What type of agents would likely be used, and where might these agents be injected? If you were in a position in the Department of Homeland Security for critical infrastructure protection, how would you recommend that the U.S. recognize and defend itself from such an attack?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

Unit III Project

Infrastructure Report

In this lesson, we have studied the vulnerability of the critical infrastructure (CI) and the impact of terrorists’ weapons of mass destruction attacks against CIs. The CI is a trifecta for a terrorist organization. In one attack, they can cause an inordinately large number of casualties due to the human density characteristic surrounding CIs, such as train stations or subway terminals; destroy a historical monument or a nation’s icon, such as the World Trade Center; or hobble important necessary conveniences, such as transportation or clean water systems, for a considerable period of time.

Write an infrastructure report involving terrorist use of a chemical or biological weapon against one of the following vulnerable infrastructure areas: mass transit, water supply, or agriculture. Include in your report the terrorist attack scenario and sequence of actions necessary to resolve the attack.

Also, discuss the following items below:

Evaluate the impact a terrorist attack would have on one of the following: mass transit, water supply, or agricultural systems in the U.S.

Explain the vulnerability of the choice you selected above to a terrorist attack.

Explain the destructive intentions from terrorists on the critical infrastructure.

Explain the impacts of this critical infrastructure event impacting the community.

Write a report of a minimum of three pages that supports your discussion. Support your arguments and opinions. You can use your textbook as well as other reliable sources as references. The CSU Online Library is a good source for references. Ensure you write an effective introduction to your report.

Use APA style when writing your paper, and be sure to correctly format any in-text citations and references. Title and reference pages are not included in the page count.

Unit IV Essay

In the textbook, the development of nonproliferation regimes—put in place for WMD starting before the first Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty in 1970 and continuing to the present day—is described in detail. After 50 years of development, however, it is clear that with the advancement of technology, the equipment and materials needed to manufacture WMD have become harder to control—particularly so-called “dual-use technology.” Coupled with that development, nation states are no longer the only level of control that is required to monitor, as terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda and ISIS have obtained the financing and technical know-how to produce these weapons.

One of the ways in which these developments may be countered is by strong private sector industry support in the nonproliferation of the technologies and materials needed for WMD.

In this assignment, discuss how improving the relationship between the private sector and intelligence community will be paramount to preventing WMD proliferation in the 21st century. Include an evaluation of the challenges future global technologies may have on enabling this relationship regarding commercial trading, financial marketing, and private industry competition. What can you do as an emergency manager to improve this relationship and arrive at a workable solution?

In addition,

explain the dilemmas concerning nuclear proliferation and

differentiate between the impact of proliferation control regimes and nonproliferation regimes.

Your essay must be at least two pages in length and in APA style. You are required to use at least one outside source. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying APA

citations. Ensure your essay begins with an introduction. A title page is not required but a reference page for sources is.

Unit VI Journal

The threat of a large-scale biological attack on U.S. soil warrants an adequate federal biodefense policy and programs for consequence management. One major challenge is the decontamination process after a large biological event. A significant amount of decontamination research has been conducted but not yet fully integrated into a federal government biological decontamination policy.

What are some recommendations for practical steps that can be taken to address the absence of a major federal government biological decontamination policy? What are some of the gaps that must be rectified? How can you, as an emergency manager, contribute to closing these gaps?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

Unit VII Journal

In the case study in your assigned reading, “An All-Hazards Training Center for a Catastrophic Emergency,” the author makes his case for establishing an all-hazards training center in each Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) region. What do you think of this idea? What benefits do you think it would provide? Would this be a valuable use of funds, or is this capability not needed? Is it redundant with already existing capabilities? What are your thoughts?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

Unit VII Case Study

Of the different types of WMD, nuclear and biological attacks are the most devastating. Challenges facing terrorist groups in obtaining these weapons are in some ways very different, yet they also share many similar characteristics. In both cases, equipment to manufacture the weapon must be gathered, materials must be obtained for assembly, and the manufacturing know-how must be developed. Additionally, the actual device must be produced, transported to its delivery point, and activated (detonated) against the target population.

Write a case study to compare the differences between a nuclear or biological WMD in challenges that nonspecific terrorist group would face between developing a nuclear or biological weapon and acquiring the equipment, materials, and technical skills for weaponizing and delivering such an attack. How is each best detected and prevented? For example, it is difficult to obtain fissile material to make a nuclear bomb whereas information on getting a biological pathogen is available on the Internet. A pathogen can be hidden in a vial whereas a nuclear bomb is bigger and can be detected with a radiation detector, for example.

At what step is the best opportunity to prevent the terrorist network from trading, acquisitioning, and manufacturing/assembling each type? How can collaborating with industry improve our ability to prevent terrorist groups (illicit trading and production of materials) from obtaining these devices? How could the strategic placement of supplies impact the health and safety of the population? Finally, how do the strategies for preparation, mitigation, and response differ for each of these types of WMD?

Utilize the case studies in your reading assignment, and include at least two other references in your case study—one nuclear and one biological WMD related (preferably from the CSU Online Library).

Your assignment should be at least two pages in length and in APA style. You may use your textbook as source material for your response and two outside sources. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations and/or in-text citations follow APA formatting guidelines. No title page is required but a reference page for sources is.

Unit VIII Journal

Discuss how you can apply the concepts learned in this course to your current or future career. How might the lessons you have learned positively impact your career success?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.